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Regulating surface potential maximizes voltage in all-perovskite tandems – Nature.com

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Nature (2022)
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We are providing an unedited version of this manuscript to give early access to its findings. Before final publication, the manuscript will undergo further editing. Please note there may be errors present which affect the content, and all legal disclaimers apply.
The open circuit voltage (VOC) deficit in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is greater in wide bandgap (>1.7 eV) cells than in ~1.5 eV perovskites.1,2 Quasi-Fermi level splitting (QFLS) measurements reveal VOC-limiting recombination at the electron transport layer (ETL) contact.3-5 This, we find, stems from inhomogeneous surface potential and poor perovskite-ETL energetic alignment. Common monoammonium surface treatments fail to address this; instead we introduce diammonium molecules to modify the perovskite surface states and achieve a more uniform spatial distribution of surface potential. Using 1,3-propane diammonium (PDA), QFLS increases by 90 meV, enabling 1.79 eV PSCs with a certified 1.33 V VOC, and > 19% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Incorporating this layer into a monolithic all-perovskite tandem, we report a record VOC of 2.19 V (89% of the detailed balance VOC limit) and > 27% PCE (26.3% certified quasi-steady-state). These tandems retain more than 86% of their initial PCE after 500 hrs operation.
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These authors contributed equally: Hao Chen, Aidan Maxwell, Chongwen Li, Sam Teale, Bin Chen
The Edward S. Rogers Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Hao Chen, Aidan Maxwell, Chongwen Li, Sam Teale, Bin Chen, Tong Zhu, Luke Grater, Junke Wang, Zaiwei Wang, Lewei Zeng, So Min Park & Edward H. Sargent
Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA
Chongwen Li, Lei Chen, Rasha Abbas Awni, Biwas Subedi, Nikolas J. Podraza & Yanfa Yan
Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA
Bin Chen, Cheng Liu, Yi Yang, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis & Edward H. Sargent
KAUST Solar Center (KSC), Physical Sciences and Engineering Division (PSE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Esma Ugur, George Harrison, Tobin Filleter & Stefaan De Wolf
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Peter Serles
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, USA
Xiaopeng Zheng, Chuanxiao Xiao & Joseph M. Luther
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA
Cheng Liu, Yi Yang & Edward H. Sargent
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Correspondence to Yanfa Yan or Edward H. Sargent.
This file contains Supplementary Figs. 1–24, Supplementary Tables 1–4, Supplementary Notes 1 and 2 and Supplementary References.
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Chen, H., Maxwell, A., Li, C. et al. Regulating surface potential maximizes voltage in all-perovskite tandems. Nature (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05541-z
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05541-z
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